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Biography of Mahatma Gandhi, Indian Independence Leader

mahatma gandhi biography

The victorious struggle for India’s independence from British control was led by Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist, and political ethicist Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who later served as an inspiration for movements for civil rights and freedom around the globe. Mahatma, which means “great-souled” and “venerable” in Sanskrit, was initially referred to him in South Africa and is now used worldwide. Gandhi was raised in a Hindu family and educated in law at the Inner Temple in London. At the age of 22, he was admitted to the bar. He travelled to South Africa to represent an Indian merchant in a dispute after spending two years in India, where he could not launch a prosperous law business. Following that, he spent the next 21 years in South Africa. Gandhi spearheaded national efforts for reducing poverty, advancing women’s rights, fostering interethnic and interreligious harmony, eliminating untouchability, and, most importantly, establishing swaraj or self-rule after taking over the Indian National Congress. Gandhi’s birthday is celebrated as both the International Day of Nonviolence and a national holiday in India called Gandhi Jayanti. Gandhi was referred to as Bapu and is regarded as the Father of the Nation in India, although not have an official title. 

Mahatma Gandhi Childhood & early life 

Mahatma Gandhi Childhood
Mahatma Gandhi Childhood

Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi, well known as Mahatma Gandhi, was born on October 2, 1869, into a Vaishya family from the middle class in Porbandar, Gujarat. He was Karamchand and Putlibai’s son. He attended the Porbandar elementary school until he was seven years old before transferring to Rajkot.

At thirteen, while still in high school, he wed Kasturba. He graduated from Samaldas College in Bhavnagar, Gujarat, then left for England to pursue a legal education in 1888. Gandhi swore to abstain from touching women, liquor, and meat when travelling, despite his mother’s objections. He passed his test in 1891, and on June 12 of the same year, he set off for India.

After spending nearly two years in India, he travelled to South Africa in 1893 to represent Dada Abdullah & Company in a legal battle. It was the location that altered both Gandhi’s life and Indian history.

Career  of Mahatma Gandhi

He joined the Indian National Congress and started the fight for independence after moving permanently back to India. He became familiar with Indian politics, issues, and issues the Indian people confronted. He quickly rose to prominence as a Congressman. Gandhi started several activities to help the nation gain its independence, and these movements enabled him to succeed.

Movement Against Cooperation

In his fight against the British Raj, Gandhi used the weapons of “non-cooperation,” “non-violence,” and “peace.” An uproar over the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar gave rise to the movement. Gandhi used this effort to persuade the British government to grant Swaraj self-rule. His backing of the Muslim fight against Turkey’s post-World War I splintering bolstered the cause.

Movement for Civil Disobedience

The movement for civil disobedience was a turning point in the history of the fight for Indian independence. It was established with the concept of disobeying British government regulations and laws. It was established in 1930, and the Simon Commission, which solely included British members, played a significant role in its development. Additionally, it led to the arrest of Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi. Sometimes the movement is also regarded as non-resistance.

Dandi March

Dandi March
Dandi March

On March 12, 1930, the Dandi March was another significant event in the fight for India’s independence. The Civil Disobedience Movement was started by the Dandi Salt March, which also proved to be a direct protest against the British government. The March started from Sabarmati Ashram to the village of Dandi in Navsari. Gandhi made salt in Dandi without giving the British government any taxes. Millions of Indians backed him in his campaign.

Campaign to Leave India

August 1942 marked the beginning of the Quit India Movement. The campaign asked that British rule stop right away. The Congress party started the mass movement for nonviolent change. Do or Die was Gandhi’s campaign motto, and following this movement, every Indian began to dream of an independent India.

Weapons used in the Freedom Movement

Gandhi did not support using violence. He used “satyagraha” and “ahimsa” as weapons to combat the British raj. In 1917, he staged his first Satyagraha in Champaran, Bihar, on behalf of the local peasants.


Gandhi called the broader strategy of nonviolent protests “Satyagraha.” He saw Satyagraha as a natural progression from nonviolence. During his difficulties in South Africa, he initially utilised this phrase. He heavily used it in his battle with the British to win India’s independence. For the benefit of the peasants, the first Satyagraha campaign was started in Champaran in 1917. Economic boycotts and fasts were used as the tools of Satyagraha after the initial campaign.


Gandhi’s political theory and spirituality are both based on non-violence. During his fight for independence, he resisted British rule without resorting to bloodshed. He held the view that using violence as a tool would not only make issues worse rather than solving them. Nonviolence was taught in various religions, including that of the Jains, Buddhists, and Christians. Gandhi’s principal ideals were non-violence and his belief in truth, humanity, and world peace. He not only chose a nonviolent course but also succeeded in securing the nation’s independence.

Gandhi’s Slavophilia

Mahatma Gandhi wanted India to be a country where everyone was treated equally, including Christians, Muslims, Sikhs, and Hindus. He envisioned a secular state where religious convictions, ideals, and dialogue are honoured and upheld in all aspects of daily life. He places a strong emphasis on prayer, purity, and non-violence. He thought that the ultimate aim of life was salvation. Gandhi’s secular beliefs gave the Indian national movement importance.

The Economic Ideologies of Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi’s economic ideas are derived from his overarching philosophy. He had a holistic approach and always sought to improve the socioeconomic standing of the community. Moral and ethical principles influenced his beliefs.

Major work 

He campaigned against racism in South Africa. Gandhi became the leader of the Indian community to resist the bill as the Assembly was poised to approve a law excluding voters who were not of European descent. His efforts resulted in a brief delay, but the bill was eventually passed in 1896. However, the Natal Indian Congress, which was discovered to be opposed to the measure, brought the Indian population in SA together.

His Satyagraha campaign in South Africa resulted in the Indian Relief Act of 1914.He exhorted the Indians to disobey the new law and to pay a price for doing so. In 1913, the campaign picked up steam in opposition to the state’s refusal to recognise Indian weddings and a £3 levy on former indentured Indians.

At Champaran, Mahatma Gandhi triumphed in his first battle for civil disobedience in India. Instead of growing food crops, the British compelled local farmers to plant indigo and other cash crops. Farmers sold these for exceptionally low set prices to landlords, primarily in the United Kingdom. The farmers were left in utter destitution as a result of this, severe weather, and high taxes. In April 1917, Gandhi came to Champaran. Gandhi oversaw coordinated demonstrations and strikes directed at landlords using nonviolent civil disobedience.

Awards & achievements

The 20th century’s most potent representative of nonviolence is Mohandas Gandhi (1869–1948). In hindsight, it is commonly believed that the Indian national leader should have been chosen to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. He received numerous nominations, but the prize was never given to him. 

Personal life and legacy 

Although Gandhi’s given name is frequently confused with the word “Mahatma” in the West, it derives from the Sanskrit words “maha” (meaning “Great”) and “Atma” (meaning Soul). Gandhi is credited with receiving the title from Rabindranath Tagore. Gandhi, however, writes in his autobiography that he never respected the title and that it frequently caused him anguish. 

Gandhi’s name appears on countless Indian streets, roads, and places. These include Gandhi Market (close to Sion, Mumbai), M.G.Road (the main street of several Indian towns, including Mumbai and Bangalore), and Gandhinagar (the state capital of Gujarat and the birthplace of Gandhi). 

Net worth 

Indian nationalist Mahatma Gandhi had a $1 fortune. In British India’s Kathiawar Agency, Mahatma Gandhi was born in October 1869 and died in January 1948.

Know More About Mahatma Gandhi in Short

  1. What age of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: 78 Year
  2. DOB of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: Date of Birth Mahatma Gandhi: 2 October 1869 (Saturday)
  3. Death of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: january 30 1948 Friday
  4. Height of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: Height (approx.)in centimeters- 168 cm
    in meters- 1.68 m
    in Feet Inches- 5’ 6”
  5. Eye Colour of mahatma Gandhi?
    Eye Colour Black
  6. Hair Colour of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: Hair Colour Bald
  7. Mahatma Gandhi Place of Birth?
    Ans: Place of Birth Porbandar State, Kathiawar Agency, British Indian Empire
    (now in Gujarat, India)
  8. Mahatma Gandhi Place of Death?
    Ans: Place of Death New Delhi, India
  9. Mahatma Gandhi Cuase of Death?
    Ans: Death Cause Assassination by shooting
  10. Resting Place of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: Resting Place Raj Ghat in Delhi, but his ashes were scattered in various Indian Rivers
  11. Zodiac sign of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: Libra
  12. Mahatma Gandhi Home Town?
    Ans: Hometown Porbandar, Gujarat
  13. School of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: Education School of Mahatma Gandhi
    • A Local School in Rajkot
    • Alfred High School, Rajkot
    • A High School in Ahmedabad
  14. College of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: Education College of Mahatma Gandhi
    • Samaldas College, Bhavnagar State (now, District Bhavnagar, Gujarat), India
    • Inner Temple, London
    • UCL Faculty of Laws, University College, London
  15. Educational Qualification of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: Barrister-at-law
  16. Religion of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: Hinduism
  17. Cast of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: Modh Baniya
  18. Food Habit of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: Vegetarian
  19. Hobbies of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: Reading, Listening to Music
  20. Some Controversies of Mahatma Gandhi?
    . In 2016, some Ghanian students called for the removal of a statue of Mahatma Gandhi from a university campus.
    . In 1906, Gandhi took an oath to abstain from sex life. Gandhi carried out several experiments to test himself as a celibate.
  21. Sexual Orientation of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: Straight
  22. Marital Status of Mahatma Gandhi at the time of Death?
    Ans: Widower
  23. Marriage Date of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: May 1833
  24. Marriage Type of Mahatma Ghandhi?
    Ans: Arranged
  25. Mahatma Gandhi Wife Name?
    Ans: Kasturba Gandhi (born as; Kasturbai Makhanji Kapadia) (11 April 1869 – 22 February 1944)
  26. Children of mahatma Gandhi? and its Name?
    Ans: Children Son(s)- 4
    • Harilal
    • Manilal
    • Ramdas
    • Devdas
    Daughter(s)- 2
    • Laxmi (adopted; daughter of the harijans Dudabhai and Daniben Dafda); died on 31 January 1984
    • Madeleine Slade aka Mirabehn (adopted; daughter of the British Rear-Admiral Sir Edmond Slade); died on 20 July 1982
  27. Father name of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: Parents Father- Karamchand Gandhi, Dewan (chief minister) of Porbandar state
  28. Mother name of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: Putlibai Gandhi (Homemaker)
  29. Siblings Brother of Mahatma Gandhi?
    Ans: Siblings Brother(s)- 2
    • Laxmidas Karamchand Gandhi
    • Karsandas Gandhi
    Sister- 1
    • Raliatbehn Gandhi
  30. Favourites Persons of Mahatama Gandhi?
    Ans: Gautama Buddha, Harishchandra, and his mother Putlibai

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